Liverseed grass


Liverseed grass biology

Species:  Urochloa panicoides

Family:
Poaceae (Grass family).

Common names: Liverseed Grass, Urochloa grass.

Description:

Seedling leaves – the seedling leaves are yellow/green, very broad, 4 – 7 mm wide, with hairs on the leaf margins and sheaths.

Adult leaves – the adult leaves are light-green to yellow/green, usually with long hairs that may be scattered or dense. The leaves are 2 - 20 cm long and 3 - 15 mm wide with crinkled or wavy leaf margins. The leaf blades expand at the point of attachment to the stem.

Mature plants – the stems either lie flat or bend upwards into an erect position, growing 15 – 80 cm high. The stems sometimes take root where the lower joints touch the ground. Plants may be tufted, or form a dense leafy mat.

Seed head – the seed head is about 10 cm long, has two to seven spikes (smaller heads) that arise off the main seed head stem. These spikes are 10 – 70 mm long. Seeds are produced in two rows along one side of each spike. The seed is produced in a spikelet (a group of small flower heads) that is 4 – 5 mm long. Seeds are light in colour, about 3 mm in length.

Lifecycle/Biology: An annual species that germinates mostly in late spring and summer and into autumn. The bulk of seedlings appear to emerge early season (spring and early summer). Rapid growth and flowering occurs during late winter, spring, summer and autumn.

Ecology: Found on a wide variety of soils varying from clays to sands. Known to be a weed of disturbed ground, roadsides and cultivated areas.

The problem: A troublesome weed in irrigated summer crops, including cotton. Produces a large number of seeds.

Distribution: Northern NSW, Central NSW, Southern NSW, Southern Qld and Central Qld. Introduced species.

References:

Plants of Western New South Wales, p. 152.,

Crop Weeds of Northern Australia, p. 11. 

Compiled by: Graham Charles and Stephen Johnson


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